For example, take a look at this code. And, developers work on other things than just producing more and more code, such as documentation, planning, testing etc. You usually need to start with a big mess before deciding how best to organize it. Slightly exceeding 16% should not be a big problem, but one should probably avoid too high values such as over 30%. This type of a metric counts the lines but excludes empty lines and comments. To prevent adverse effects on metrics, old code should be either deleted or excluded using conditional compilation: Since excluded lines are not counted in LLOC, LLOC', LLOW or MCOMM, they don't affect these metrics in any way. An overhead power line is a structure used in electric power transmission and distribution to transmit electrical energy across large distances. Most programming languages provide many built in functions that would otherwise require many steps to accomplish, for example computing the square root of a number. ", MCOMM% measures commentedness in terms of how many comments there are for each code line. There are specific procedure types that consist of just one line. Exception. The following limits have been suggested for Java: Procedure LLOC <= 50 Since LLOC is not affected by comments, blanks or line continuation, it's a handy way to measure the amount of the actual programming work. To make the procedure do any work, it should thus have at least 3 lines of code. Depending on what you count, you get a low or a high line count. A regular procedure already consists of at least 2 lines of code: the procedure header line and the end line (Sub and End Sub). Even though you can put several commands on one line if separated by a semicolon, these lines can often be hard to notice. Since a logical line can expand over several lines, the physical line count exaggerates code size. Not putting blank lines between sections of code can also make it harder to read. A minimum useful class contains 3 lines of code. Function Comments: Every function (in both the .h and the .c files) should have a comment describing: what function does; what its parameter values are what values it returns (if a function returns one type of value usually, and another value to indicate an error, your comment should describe both of these types of return values). In classic VB, an interface class can have empty methods containing just 2 lines of code. A minimum useful file contains one line of code. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering Vol. Each empty or whitespace-only logical line is counted in LLOW. A significantly lower MCOMM or MCOMM% should not be interpreted as suddenly degraded quality in this case. In addition, comments starting with a dollar sign ($) are not counted as meaningful comments since they are interpreted as special Comment directives in Project Analyzer. Save the file either in the current folder or in a folder on the MATLAB search path. This also suggests that more whitespace should be used in data declarations than in executable code. A line with both code and commentation is counted in LLOC, not in LLOC'. What is a large project? In no case should LLINES exceed LINES. A logical line is a logical line of code if has any other content than just a comment or whitespace. Writing a multiline comment is not a good practice, since you can always write two comment lines separately. It's not a part of your program in the analyzed configuration, so it doesn't really have any meaning. Hint: you have already seen the code to determine the displacement (dx, dy) between two points: use the getShift function in bounce2.py. As a special case, when there are no code lines, MCOMM% defined as zero. In fact, it's not counted as whitespace or comment either. MCOMM counts only meaningful comments and ignores meaningless comments. Code Style¶. For classic VB, the LINES metric, along with every other line count, excludes the (invisible) class and form declaration lines at the start of .frm and .cls files. To avoid too long files, you might want to set a maximum limit to LINES for files. Too many blanks will make reading harder, though, as one has to scroll through more pages than otherwise necessary. Visual Basic programs typically contain one statement per line of code. This is the simplest line count. The "Supported as" column shows which metrics Project Metrics supports. Using double negatives. The classification is based on our long-time experience with Visual Basic projects. My dream scenario is for all of my methods to have 4-5 lines at most. Naturally, the amount of commentation is not the only issue, it's also about what you write in the comments. (This happens because it isn't easy to programmatically distinguish real comments from commented-out code. ) x = 10 while x > 0: print x x = x - 3 a) 3 b) 4 c) 5 ... To allow the programmer to write bad code, but have it still work. A study by Gorla, Benander and Benander compared debug time against the amount of whitespace lines. A blank comment or a comment with only punctuation doesn't have a meaning, so it is not counted as meaningful comment. A source file is one that has source code in it. A full-line comment is not a line of code. An empty line or a comment line is not counted in LLOC. How many lines of code? In VB.NET, the minimum useful class also consists of 3 lines: Class, End Class and a variable declaration with an initializer. It is included in physical line count (LINES), though. There are several ways to count the lines. On the other hand, a VB.NET property accessor consists of 3 or 4 lines of code even when the accessor body (Get/Set) is empty. Here is our suggestion for classification of Visual Basic project sizes. It is written entirely in Perl with no dependencies outside the standard ��� Measurement methods. When used together with LLOC%, it answers the question "How much of it is real code and how much is comments? It is a simple measure, easy to understand, and widely used. T��� In VB2008 and later, it is also possible to leave out the " _" sequence in certain cases. Here are the minimum limits: Procedure LLOC >= 3 You typically focus efforts on a single part of your program at a time, working with the code in chunks. This is sometimes referred to as the. Functions ��� reusable blocks of code - Learn web development | ��� Lines of code, or LOC, looks like a simple concept. This means one comment for every 5 code lines. A regular procedure already consists of at least 2 lines of code: the procedure header line and the end line (Sub and End Sub). There are only two hard things in computer science: cache invalidation, naming things, and off-by-one errors. We suggest that MCOMM% be at least 20%. Read more, ©Aivosto Oy - Project Analyzer Help Contents, http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/freeabs_all.jsp?arnumber=44385. 19.2 When should you write a function?. Generally, any method longer than ten lines should make you start asking questions. You should always break long code into smaller chunks that can be tested and managed separately. Thus, all executable lines, as well as declarative lines, are counted in LLOC. LLOW is almost exactly the same as "the number of blank lines", or Physical Lines of Whitespace. However, code that is excluded by a False condition in an #if .. #then .. #elseif .. #else .. #end if block is not counted as code. The idea is to review the longish procedures in the middle range. Exception. A regular class, on the other hand, should always have at least 3 lines. If you delete features and LLOC stays the same, you may have forgotten to the delete code that was left unused. This way your code will move the turtle randomly and call drawBubble many times. The physical lines count (LINES) is a simple but not a perfect way to measure code size. In VB.NET, comments starting with UPGRADE_ are not meaningful, they have been generated by the Upgrade Wizard and they should be removed eventually. In fact, there are no comment or whitespace lines in line numbered code. What is more, it also counts as a meaningful comment. All the comment metrics (LLOC', MCOMM and MCOMM%) are based on logical lines. For this reason, the logical line counts (LLOC, LLOC', LLOW, any metrics derived from these metrics) are not suitable for measuring fully line numbered code. A procedure, class or file should not be empty. Old code that has been commented out counts as comment. On the other hand, if your code is simple, uses consistent naming and is easy to read, you can probably do with less comments. They are counted from logical lines, and they sum up to 100%. Class LLOC >= 3 Lines excluded by compiler conditional directives, LLOC'% measures the relative amount of comment lines. In that case, the best practice is to use the same name for the function and the file (in this example, fact.m), since MATLAB ® associates the program with the file name. That means spaces and tabulation don't affect the counting. If there is any doubt, use the which command to find out if a function exists of a given name. PEP 8 -- Style Guide for Python Code Basically: Blank Lines Separate top-level function and class definitions with two blank lines. I know that seems obvious at first, but hear me out, as many refactorings, abstractions, ���cleaner��� code increases the LOC. If you ask Python programmers what they like most about Python, they will often cite its high readability. As a special case, line numbers and line labels count as code. If you have to spend effort into looking at a fragment of code to figure out what it's doing, then you should extract it into a function and name the function after that ���what���. Using lines of code to compare a 10,000-line project to a 100,000-line project is far more useful than when comparing a 20,000-line project with a 21,000-line project. However, it's possible to put several statements on one line by using the colon ":" or writing single-line If..Then statements. Commenting . One should not use such a utility to measure the code size of classic VB projects. Once the user selects a point that is within the chosen radius of the mystery point, the mystery circle should appear. You can also have a minimum limit so as to avoid empty or nearly empty files. Instead of limiting the file length, you may consider limiting the number of procedures in it by setting a maximum limit on the PROCS metric. LLOCt measures the lines in a call tree. Where a statement or a comment is split over two or more physical lines, they count as a logical line. In this study the optimal amount of blanks was 14% to 20% in DATA DIVISION code and 8% to 16% in PROCEDURE DIVISION code. Pick your preference. A common problem in line counts is also that empty (or whitespace) lines, as well as comments, are included in the count. It's not a code line (LLOC=0). Excluded lines are counted in LINES, though. MATLAB ® files often consist of many commands. When you delete features, LLOC should decrease. ... A feature should have only one place in the code that handles it. LLOW is calculated from logical lines to make it comparable to LLOC and LLOC'. Functions "Encapsulate" a task (they combine many instructions into a single line of code). Exceptionally high LLOC' or MCOMM may indicate the presence of a large amount of commented-out code. Also be careful when paying for delivered code lines, as there are many ways to bloat the figure. It's usual that LLINES is somewhat less than LINES. The first is the DirectoryLineCounter. If it's totally empty (or if it contains just empty lines or comments), it doesn't serve a purpose. These three percentages measure the relative amount of code, comments and whitespace lines. Indeed, a high level of readability is at the heart of the design of the Python language, following the recognized fact that code is read much more often than it is written. It consists of one or more uninsulated electrical cables (commonly multiples of three for three-phase power) suspended by towers or poles.. Overview [Translations: Belarussian, Bulgarian, Russian, Serbo-Croatian, Slovakian Ukrainian] cloc counts blank lines, comment lines, and physical lines of source code in many programming languages.Given two versions of a code base, cloc can compute differences in blank, comment, and source lines. In classic VB, you could (in theory) write a multiline comment using the line continuation character "_". this forum made possible by our volunteer staff, including ... As Einstein supposedly said "Make is as simple as possible, but no simpler". Move the commands that were already inside the function inside the loop instead-- In other words "wrap a loop around the existing lines of code that are inside the function. Comments consisting of a single repeated letter are taken as banners and not counted in MCOMM. PROCEDURE DIVISION is the equivalent of executable procedural code. A comment in VB is a statement that starts with a apostrophe (') or the REM statement. Similarly, when explaining your files to others, often you describe your program in chunks. What is more, it is a good estimate of the complexity of a single file, class or procedure. Examples are Declare statements, Event statements, and VB.NET abstract procedure declarations, such as procedure definitions in an Interface and MustInherit declarations in a class. Project Metrics defines the following comment metrics. Code Sections Divide Your File into Code Sections. Source: Checkstyle utility for Java. Any function that has more than 10 lines is just too long. It's a matter of coding style to define a maximum limit for LLOC. Interpreting the result for Visual Basic development, it seems safe to assume that LLOW% values 8% to 16% are all right. MCOMM% measures how many meaningful comments there are per each logical line of code. Thus, newer MCOMM and MCOMM% values may be lower. Compared to Visual Basic, COBOL DATA DIVISION is roughly equivalent to data declarations in Visual Basic. Only source files are included in the line counts. A program with a higher LLOC almost certainly "does more" than a program with a lower LLOC. An empty line (or a line with just whitespace characters) is not a line of code either. Especially when measuring programmers' performance the line counts aren't perfect. However, it's not. You should set your own target values for this metric based on what you feel is readable. If you use comment templates with information on copyright, developer, last modified date and other non-technical information, you should require a high MCOMM%, since the comments should also describe the code, not just the development process. Class LLOC <= 1500 When you add features, LLOC increases. Many useful comparisons involve only the order of magnitude of lines of code in a project. A logical line of code is one that contains actual source code. That's when you join two empty lines with the line continuation character, as in the following example: When you write "_" to join two empty lines, it counts as two physical lines (LINES=2), but just one logical line of whitespace (LLOW=1). You can use the whitespace percentage (LLOW%, see below) as an indication of if you have enough empty lines in your code. In a summary, LLOC counts all logical lines except the following: LLOC is a good measure of the size of your program. Thus if you bear with me, you might find this code useful to you. If the procedure can be split, do it, but it can also be left alone if it works better as a long procedure. Wow! Classes reaching 200 lines of code could almost certainly be refactored into smaller classes with more specific responsibilities, but a hard 200 line limit seems a bit low. you say in amazement as you stagger back trying to regain your balance. Google Is 2 Billion Lines of Code���And It's All in One Place | WIRED I have been reviewing a lot of code lately and the larger the added LOC are the more concerned I am about being able to fully understand and ��� The simplest way to measure the size of a program is to count the lines. The logical lines of code metric (LLOC) has both advantages and disadvantages. You can also estimate the number of defects per 1000 LLOC. Students of the Code.org tutorials (Code Studio) have written 24,707,369,638 lines of code.Is this a lot? a) Methods should not have more than an average of 30 code lines (not counting line spaces and comments). One should use whitespace wisely to add readability to code. In classic VB, an interface class can have empty methods containing just 2 lines of code. Some simple line count utilities may count the invisible declarative code at the start of .frm and .cls files. How many lines of code should a java function have . You can use it to measure productivity, although you need to be cautious, because programming style can have an impact on the values. Each line ends with a line break, usually CR+LF. That is the (declarations) section, Dim, Const and Type statements and the like. What does it do? Since you ran the code through the console, the function is now available, like any of the other built-in functions within R. Running sum.of.squares(3,4) will give you the answer 25.. Both LLOC'% and MCOMM% measure the amount of commentation. Do you mean using white-space between statements? Some problems are easier to solve with a long procedure instead of several shorter procedures. These statements are counted as code if they exist among your code. Modify the code of drawAllBubbles: Add a loop inside the function. Most of your classes probably will have fewer than 200 lines, but I think having some large beefy classes is unavoidable. There are two parts to this article you may find interesting. These lines are not code, but contain declarations for forms, controls and properties. On the contrary, the Meaningful Comments metric (MCOMM) considers both the full comment lines and the end-of-line comments. 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